16 Types of Cement and uses in the Construction|Types of Cement Basic Civil Engineering


16 Types of Cement and uses in the Construction|Types of Cement Basic Civil Engineering

Types of Cement

  There are various types of cement used in concrete construction. Each type of cement has its own properties, uses and advantages. That is based on the composition and the materials used during its manufacture.

16 Types of Cement

  Here, I have listed the names of 15 types of Cement below. On scrolling down, you can find each type of cement is discussed in detail.

1. Ordinary Portland cement
2. Rapid hardening cement
3. Low heat Portland cement


4. Portland Pozzolana cement
5. Portland slag cement 
6. Coloured cement
7. Hydrophobic cement
8. Expansive cement


9. Acid resisting cement
10. Quick setting cement
11. Sulphate resisting cement 
12. High alumina cement
13. White cement
14. Air entraining cement
15. Oil well cement
16. Super sulphate cement


1. Ordinary Portland cement


The composition, properties and uses of ordinary Portland cement are discussed in the posts below.



    

2. Rapid hardening cement (I.S. 8041: 1990)


 Rapid hardening cement develops strength rapidly. The strength obtained by such cement at the age of 3 days is the same as that expected of ordinary Portland cement at 7 days. 

The rapid rate of development of strength is due to the higher fineness of grinding and higher C3 S and lower C2 S contents. 

  This cement conformed to the specifications of I.S. 8041: 1990. 

Rapid hardening cement is used in the following circumstances.
       a) In pre-fabricated constructions
        b) Road repair works
       c) Situations where the formwork is required to be removed early and In cold weather climate for better resistance against frost damage.

3. Low heat Portland cement (I.S. 12600: 1989)


  Hydration of cement is an exothermic action.
 During the process of setting and hardening of cement, an appreciable rise of temperature occurs. 



In massive constructions like abutments, retaining walls, dams, the temperature rise is an important factor, because this will, therefore, affect the water tightness of the structure and may lead to deterioration. 
In low heat cement, the heat evolved is less. The heat generated is 50 to 65 cal/gm during hydration. This cement offers better resistance to chemical deterioration than ordinary Portland cement.        Low heat cement is obtained by increasing dicalcium silicate
content, decreasing tricalcium silicate content and considerably bringing down tricalcium aluminate. 



This cement conformed to the specifications of IS.12600: 1989

This cement is used for mass concrete works like construction of
abutments, retaining walls and dams.

4. Portland Pozzolana cement (I.S. 1489: 1991)


    Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) is made either by inter grinding portland cement clinker and pozzolana or by the uniform blending of portland cement and fine pozzolana. 



Pozzolana may be natural materials like volcanic ash or like fly ash etc. In India, burnt clay, shale or fly ash are used. 

The pozzolana content varies from 10% to 25% by weight of cement. 
Since the free lime, which is readily attacked are chemically removed. the pozzolana concretes have a greater resistance to chemical agencies. 
  They can also resist attack by seawater better than ordinary Portland cement. 

The pozzolana cement has lower heat evolution. 

Bakra Dam was constructed using this type of cement.



This cement conforms to the specifications of I.S. 1489: 1991

This cement is recommended:

      a)For marine structures.
      b) For sewers and sewage disposal works. 
   c) For hydraulic structures like dams, reservoirs, canals, aqueducts.
      d) For mass structures like bridge piers and thick foundations


5. Portland slag cement (I.S. 455: 1989)

Portland Slag Cement (PSC) is manufactured by mixing clinker, gypsum and granulated furnace slag in suitable proportions and grinding the mixture to get a thorough mixture. 



The advantages of this cement are

   a) Reduced heat of hydration
   b) Reduced permeability
   c)Better resistance against corrosion of steel reinforcement.
    d) Increased resistance to chemical attack.

It is suitable for places where soil or water containing an excessive amountof sulphates or alk ali metals, alumina and iron, as well as acidic water, particularly in a marine environment.



6 Coloured cement


These cement are obtained by adding pigments with ordinary Portland cement or white cement. 

The amount of pigments added should be within 5 to10 percent.     The following pigments are used to get various colours.
Chromium oxide :green
Cobalt:blue
Iron Oxide :brown. black, red, yellow
Carbon pigments:  black
Manganese: black. brown

Coloured cement is sold in the market under patented names of Snowcem, Wondercem and Rainbow etc. 



These are used for floor finishing works and plastering of walls. Also used for decorative works. Used in the manufacture of tiles and cast stones.

7. Hydrophobic cement (I.S. 8043:1991)

The ordinary cement clinker is ground with a water-repelling film-forming substance such as oleic acid and acetic acid, a very fine of this material on each grain of cement protects from the effect of moisture during storage and transportation.
Properties of this cement are similar to ordinary Portland cement except that it entrains a small number of air bubbles. 

Other film-forming materials like pentachlorophenol or calcium plates are also used for making this cement
This cement conforms to 1.S. 80431991.

  This Cement is also called as water-repellant cement. It is manufactured under the trade name Aqua-arete. 
It is used where watertight conditions are predominant.



8. Expansive cement:

Ordinary Portland cement shrinks during setting and drying. While
expansive cement suffers hardly any change in volume during drying.

Expansive cement is manufactured by mixing 8 parts of sulpho aluminate clinker with 100 parts of Portland cement and 15 parts of stabilizer.
 This type of cement is useful in machine foundation and cement grouting in prestress concrete ducts. 

It also used for concrete repair works.

9. Acid resisting cement


This cement resists the attack of acids. To achieve this, the materials like quartz, sodium silicate is added to the ordinary cement.
It is used for the construction of acid-resistant floors in factories.

10. Quick setting cement

This cement sets quickly. 
The setting action of this cement starts within 5 minutes and hardens within an hour or so. 

In quick setting cement, percentage of gypsum is reduced to decrease the setting time of cement. 

A small quantity of aluminium sulphate is also added for this purpose.
As it sets quickly, it is ideal for underwater construction



11. Sulphate resisting cement (I.S. 12330: 1988)


Ordinary Portland cement is easily attacked by sulphates especially
magnesium sulphate. The effect of sulphate attack is cracks and subsequent disruption. 
This is more severe in the case of marine structures because of alternate wetting and divine. 
To rectify this, sulphate resisting cement is used In the composition of this cement, the percentage of Tricalcium Aluminate is made less than 5 percent. 

This has got good resistance against sulphate attack.

This is used under the following conditions

    a)For marine structures
   b) For foundation in sulphate infested soil
   c)For sewage treatment structures
    d)For fabrication of pipes to be used in marshy regions.

12. High alumina cement (I.S. 6452: 1989) 

High alumina cement is obtained by grinding clinkers formed by calcium bauxite and time. 

This cement can withstand high temperature. 
High alumina cement is slow setting but rapid hardening cement.   Initial setting time is about three and half-hours and final setting will take place after 5 hours.
  It evolves more heat during setting and attains higher strength in a short period. 
It also resists the action of acids. 

This cement is also known as aluminous cement.
High alumina cement is used for water retaining structures because it very impervious and corrosion-resistant.
 It is used for making refractory concrete and furnace lining

13. White cement (I.S. 8042: 1989)

White cement is free from colouring agents like oxides of iron, manganese and chromium. 

The raw materials used are pure limestone, china clay, silica,Fluorspar and selenite. 

A small quantity of sodium aluminium fluoride (cryolite) is also added. 
The fuel used for manufacturing this cement is refined-furnace oil (RF) or gas to avoid the adulteration of by coal ash. 
Seal shells also can be used as raw material. 
It is white in colour.
 The whiteness of white cement is measured by ISI scale and it should be more than 70%.
White cement is used for whitewashing and plasterwork. 

  It is used in floor finishing and painting works. Precast stone, tiles and colour cement are made using white cement. Also used for road and bridge markings.

14. Air entraining cement

In this cement, 0.01 to 0.05 % of air-entraining agents are added. The commonly used air-entraining agents are vinsol, wood resins and darex.
 They are added during grinding process in cement manufacturing.

Concrete made from this cement is more plastic, workable and causes less segregation. It is also resistant to severe frost action.


15 .Oil well cement (I.S. 8229:1986)

In oil well, cement slurry is used to seal off the space between casing and sides of the well. 
This slurry is to be pumped to very high depths.
Ordinary cement sets before it reach in position. 
Oil well cement is used in this situation. 


This is made by adjusting the proportion of iron oxide adding retarders like starches, cellulose products or acids.
This cement is used in oil well to fill the gap between the the steel lining tube and wall of the well.

16. Super sulphate cement (I.S. 6909:1990)

This cement is made by grinding a mixture of blast furnace slag, burnt gypsum and Portland cement clinker in suitable proportions. This cement is finer and heat of hydration is less. 

It has high resistance against chemicals attack especially sulphate attack. 
Super sulphate cement is recommended under the following conditions.

    a)For mass concrete works.
    b)For foundations in chemically aggressive soils.
    c)For marine works.
    d)For concrete pipes to be laid in sulphate bearing soils.





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